A series of advanced and extensive experimental activities have been conducted to address specifically the following items:
- unstable fracture propagation control
- fracture initiation control
- corrosion and stress corrosion control
Special thoughts were given to define relevant mixtures of CO2 that reflect potential scenarios in this context, such as pre- and post-combustion as well as oxyfuel mixtures.
Fracture initiation was studied to confirm that CO2 does not pose any additional challenges in this context. The temperature of the expanding gas has an important impact on the properties of the surrounding material, and in turn on the resistance to fracture.
As CO2 is an especially demanding gas in terms of fracture propagation, crack arrestors and composite reinforced pipes were included in the full scale fracture propagation test line.
Several seminal results were achieved. Knowledge of hazard distances and inaccessible time regarding the area of release are of importance for the design and operation of pipelines. The studies identified the maximum dispersion distance of CO2 clouds and revealed that these could accurately be modelled with dedicated FE codes.